xFORMAL project will respect the key principles of andragogy to achieve success in informal learning considering the E.M.O.T.I.O.N. framework as the underlying necessity of not disassociating instructional content from emotional background. In detail, EMOTION means:

–  Engagement (E): realise attractive and immersive scenario

–  Motivation (M): stimulate curiosity and challenge

–  Opportunity of mastery (O): define meaningful goals with clear action, results and feedback

–  Themes and story (T): design for their life challenges

–  Intriguing learning: implement curiosity or interest

–  Objectives: explicit educational objectives

–  Natural flow between learning and fun (N): emphasise a proper combination of game characteristics and learning content.


Also, the Heutagogical approach – the self-determined learning environment – builds the basis of the methodology used in the project. Heutagogy aligns well with the affordances of current technology, in that the technology supports exploration, learner-determined learning, and personalization of learning; it is non-linear in its design and promotes creation and sharing of information and knowledge. It allows for collaboration in co-creation of new information and knowledge and promotes a network of connectivity that can bridge the gap between academia and the professions, while creating personal learning environments.


To enact the game-learning process the following methods will be considered:

Inclusive: citizens and communities will be included in the experience of their landscape and cultural heritage;

Participatory: citizens will be invited to play an active role in the process of acquisition of the cultural landscape, participating in the planning, managing and protecting their heritage.

Building capacity of involved actors: all the stakeholders will have equal ‘voice’ in the Participatory Action Research promoted by xFORMAL.

Sustainable: a bottom-up approach will create direct benefit to the communities, by strengthening the relationships among them to foster local ownership and shared responsibility.